Built between 1874 and 1882, copper (now pea-green) Moorish revival style onion domes crown this edifice, integrating Islamic and Italian architectural styles.
Italian Fascist soldiers used the synagogue as a garage during World War II and then attempted to destroy it with help from retreating German soldiers in August 1944. Members of the Italian resistance defused most of the explosives, though it sustained some damage.
The synagogue was damaged again, and later restored, during flooding of the Arno River in 1966.
Inside is the Museo di Arte e Storia Ebraico, containing Jewish ceremonial objects and embroidered vestments.